It is an axiom from many philosophers famously coined as “ex nihilo nihil fit” (‘out of nothing nothing comes’) to demonstrate the state of affairs from which the universe came to be. In other words, something cannot come from nothing. However, this seemingly unambiguous axiom is being challenged by a number of leading theoretical and astrophysicists today.
In Theoretical Physicist Lawrence Krauss’s new book, ‘A Universe From Nothing’ (2012) he writes, “The metaphysical ‘rule’… ‘out of nothing nothing comes’ has no foundation in science.” (p. 174). A number of cosmological models over the last half century have been offered to demonstrate how “ex nihilo” is not really “ex nihilo” in the traditional meaning of the word. Famous British physicist Stephen Hawking in particular, with physicist James Hartle in 1983 with their paper “Wave Function of the Universe”, have offered an interesting quantum cosmological model that posits singularity as curved, not a defined point (as seen by the above picture).
According to this model, time is limited in the past, but has no boundary as such. Thus, we have creation without a moment of creation. As Hawking writes, “So long as the universe had a beginning, we could suppose that it had a creator. But if the universe is completely self-contained, having no boundary or edge, it would have neither beginning nor end: it would simply be. What place then, for a creator?” (‘Brief History of Time’; cp. 1988, p. 136). The problem with Hawking’s model is that one first must understand that quantum physics is grounded upon Werner Heisenberg’s “Uncertainty Principle”. According to physicist Paul Davies, “This states that all measurable quantities are subject to unpredictable fluctuations, and hence uncertainty in their values.” (‘Mind of God’, cp. 1992, p. 30)
Since this model is a cosmological model based on quantum mechanics, they are based upon probabilities, not certainties. Therefore, the mathematical formalizing of this model can supply only mere probabilities, which does not follow that an assessment of these probabilities will actualize given Hawking’s understanding of these certain epochs of the universe. Therefore, this model is an “Actualizing of Probabilities.”